Signs and symptoms
In lieu of screening for prostate cancer now they are detected in asymptomatic individuals. In symptomatic individual, it presents as difficulty in urination or blood in urine. Any cause for painless bleeding in urine should be evaluated and to be considered from tumors arising in kidney, ureter or bladder unless proven otherwise. Cancer of penis usually presents as growth over glans and in advanced cases may present as urinary obstruction.
Evaluation of Genito-urinary cancer
Any painless bleeding in urine should be evaluated by CT scan of abdomen that reveals the tumor of kidney, ureters or bladder and also helps in staging and local extent of the tumor for operability. Prostate cancer when detected due to screening by raised serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) should be evaluated by multi-parametric MRI. Once anatomical extent of the tumor is known then a guided biopsy is taken to know the grade of the tumor. Bladder tumor also needs initial evaluation by cystoscopy and biopsy to reveal the grade and depth of tumor penetration into the wall of bladder. Penile tumors are assessed by local examination and incisional biopsy from the lesion helps to confirm the diagnosis