Symptoms of Gynecological malignancies:
Carcinoma cervix presents as foul smelling vaginal discharge or as post coital bleeding. Some advanced cases of carcinoma cervix may present swelling over lower limbs and kidney failure. Carcinoma ovary presents as distention of abdomen with increased frequency of urination and early satiety. Carcinoma endometrium usually presents as post menopausal bleeding as it is common in obese and post menopausal women.
Diagnosis of Gynecological Malignancies:
Cervical and uterine tumors commonly present as per vaginal bleeding, in uterine cancer it could be spontaneous post menopausal and in cervical tumors it could be post coital. Biopsy from the suspicious lesion in cervix lesion seen during colposcopy helps to confirm the diagnosis. Uterine tumor evaluation requires hysteroscopic biopsy of the endometrial tissue. Ovarian malignancy usually presents in advanced stage with abdominal distention and difficulty in passing urine and stool. CT scan of abdomen and pelvis helps in diagnosis by revealing a complex cystic mass arising from the ovary. CA 125 is a tumor marker secreted by ovarian epithelial cells and is raised significantly in ovarian carcinomas.